Indonesia has made considerable improvements in access to basic education. Government spending has doubled over the past 15 years, and enrolment in primary education is almost 100%. Despite more children having access to learning opportunities, this has not yet resulted in better learning outcomes. International and national tests comparing student knowledge and skills in basic literacy and numeracy show that Indonesian students underperform compared with their regional and global peers.
Strong school leadership and teaching is essential for improving student learning outcomes. INOVASI pre-pilot activities in 2017 and 2018 revealed the low level of teaching competency in Indonesian primary schools, resulting in low learning outcomes for children.
When it comes to school leadership, pre-pilot activities in 2018, particularly in West Sumba, found that principals and supervisors tend to focus more on administration and management rather than on educational leadership and learning. What is expected of a principal on paper and in reality can be quite different.

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